Therapy that modifies the microbiome to adjust imbalances or that removes certain components of the microbiome.

Microbiome therapeutics are using additive, subtractive or modulatory therapy by applying native or engineered microbes, bacteriophages, bacteriocins, and in specific cases, antibiotics.

The best-known microbiome modifying therapy involving the transfer of healthy microbes from healthy donors to recipients through various modes of delivery is called Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). FTM is used to treat Clostridioides difficile infections. In general, microbiome modifying therapies are still poorly understood.