Definition:

Antibiotic: A compound that inhibits the growth or kills bacteria. In recent years, ‘antibiotic’ has become synonymous with ‘antibacterial’.

Antibacterial: A drug, chemical or other substance that kills bacteria (bactericidal) or stops their growth (bacteriostatic).

Antimicrobial: A drug, chemical or other substance that kills, inactivates or slows the growth of microbes, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.

For more information, see AntibioticDB.

 

Antibiotic Class Source Examples Target(s)
Aminocoumarins Actinomycete natural products Novobiocin, clorobiocin DNA gyrase
Aminoglycosides Actinomycete natural products Streptomycin Kanamycin Amikacin Gentamicin Capreomycin Ribosome
Ansamycins (inc Rifamycins) (macrolides) Actinomycete natural products Rifampin Rifabutin Rifapentine Geldanamycin RNA polymerase     Hsp90
β-lactams (carbapenems) Actinomycete natural product-derived Imipenem Meropenem Cell wall biosynthesis
β-lactams (cephalosporins) Fungal natural products Cefpirome Ceftazidime Cell wall biosynthesis
β-lactams (penicillins) Fungal natural products Penicillin V & G Amoxicillin Cell wall biosynthesis
β-lactams (monobactams) Bacterial natural products Aztreonam
nocardicin A
Cell wall biosynthesis
Diaminopyrimidines Synthetic Trimethoprim Iclaprim Folate metabolism
Glycopeptides Actinomycete natural products Vancomycin Teicoplanin Dalbavancin Cell wall biosynthesis
Lincosamides Actinomycete natural products Lincomycin Clindamycin Ribosome
Lipopeptides Bacterial natural products Daptomycin Surfactin Cell membrane
Nitroimidazoles Synthetic Metronidazole Tinidazole Pretomanid DNA damage
Nitrofurans Synthetic Nitrofurantoin Ribosome
Oxazolidinones Synthetic Linezolid Initiation of protein synthesis
Pleuromutilins Fungal natural product Pleuromutilin Retapamulin Ribosome
Polyketides – type I (macrolides/ketolides) Actinomycete natural products Erythromycin Telithromycin Azithromycin Clarithromycin Fidaxomicin Ribosome       RNA polymerase
Polyketides – type II (tetracyclines) Actinomycete natural products Tetracycline Doxycycline Tigecycline Ribosome
Polypeptides Bacillus natural produce Bacitracin Colistin Polymyxin B Cell wall biosynthesis
Quinolones Synthetic Ciprofloxacin Moxifloxacin Levofloxacin DNA gyrase & DNA topoisomerase IV
Streptogramins Actinomycete natural products Pristinamycin Virginiamycin Ribosome
Sulfonamides Synthetic Prontosil Sulfanilamide Folate metabolism
Singletons (compounds that do not belong to one of the chemical classes above) Synthetic Arsphenamine Salvarsan Not clear
Singletons (compounds that do not belong to one of the chemical classes above) Actinomycete natural products Chloramphenicol Ribosome
Singletons (compounds that do not belong to one of the chemical classes above) Synthetic Bedaquiline Proton pump inhibitor
Singletons (compounds that do not belong to one of the chemical classes above) Synthetic Clofazimine DNA binding
Singletons (compounds that do not belong to one of the chemical classes above) Actinomycete natural products Cycloserine Cell wall biosynthesis
Singletons (compounds that do not belong to one of the chemical classes above) Actinomycete natural products Fosfomycin Cell wall biosynthesis
Singletons (compounds that do not belong to one of the chemical classes above) Synthetic Ethambutol Cell wall biosynthesis
Singletons (compounds that do not belong to one of the chemical classes above) Fungal natural product Fusidic acid Ribosome
Singletons (compounds that do not belong to one of the chemical classes above) Synthetic Isoniazid NADH-dependent enoyl reductase
Singletons (compounds that do not belong to one of the chemical classes above) Actinomycete natural product-derived Metronidazole Tinidazole Pretomanid DNA damage via ROS
Singletons (compounds that do not belong to one of the chemical classes above) Pseudomonas natural product Mupirocin Protein synthesis
Singletons (compounds that do not belong to one of the chemical classes above) Synthetic Pyrazinamide Not clear
Singletons (compounds that do not belong to one of the chemical classes above) Synthetic Triclosan Fatty acid synthesis