Definition:

Antibiotic: A compound that inhibits the growth or kills bacteria. In recent years, ‘antibiotic’ has become synonymous with ‘antibacterial’.

Antibacterial: A drug, chemical or other substance that kills bacteria (bactericidal) or stops their growth (bacteriostatic).

Antimicrobial: A drug, chemical or other substance that kills, inactivates or slows the growth of microbes, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.

For more information, see AntibioticDB.

 

Antibiotic Class Original source Examples Target(s)
Aminocoumarins Actinomycete natural products Novobiocin

Clorobiocin

Declovanillobiocin

Isovanillobiocin

Novclobiocin 101

Vanillobiocin

DNA gyrase
Aminoglycosides (incl. aminocyclitols) Actinomycete natural products or (semi)synthetically derived Streptomycin

Kanamycin

Amikacin

Gentamicin

Capreomycin

Plazomicin

Apramycin*

Arbekacin

Dibekacin

Hygrovetine*

Isepamicin

Neomycin

Netilmicin

Paromomycin

Sisomicin

Spectinomycin

Tobramycin

Ribostamycin

Micronomicin

Dihydrostreptomycin

Framycetin

Bekanamycin

Ribosome
Ansamycins (incl. Rifamycins)

(macrolides)

Actinomycete natural products or (semi)synthetically derived Rifampicin

Rifabutin

Rifapentine

Rifaximin

Rifamycin

Geldanamycin

RNA polymerase

 

 

 

 

Hsp90

β-lactams (carbapenems) Actinomycete natural product-derived Imipenem

Meropenem

Biapenem

Doripenem

Ertapenem

Faropenem

Olivanic acid

Panipenem

Razupenem

Ritipenem

Sanfetrinem

Tebipenem

Tomopenem

Cell wall biosynthesis
β-lactams (cephalosporins incl. cephems) Fungal natural products or (semi)synthetically derived 1st generation

Cefadroxil

Cefalonium

Cefazolin

Cephalexin

Cephaloridine

Cephalotin

Cephapirin

Cephradine

Cefacetrile

Cephaloglycin

Cefroxadine

Cefazedone

Cefatrizine

Ceftezole

 

2nd generation

Cefaclor

Cefamandole

Cefmetazole

Cefonicid

Ceforanide

Cefotetan

Cefoxitin

Cefprozil

Cefuroxime

Loracarbef

Flomoxef

Cefbuperazone

Cefotiam

Cefminox

 

3rd generation

Ceftazidime

Cefdinir

Cefditoren

Cefetamet

Cefixime

Cefmenoxime

Cefoperazone

Cefotaxime

Cefpiramide

Cefpodoxime

Cefsulodin

Ceftibuten

Ceftizoxime

Ceftriaxone

Latamoxef

Cefcapene

Cefodizime

Ceftolozane

 

4th generation

Cefpirome

Cefepime

Cefoselis

Cefozopran

 

Others

Cefiderocol

Ceftaroline

Ceftobiprole

Nitrocefin

Cell wall biosynthesis
β-lactams (penicillins) Fungal natural products or (semi)synthetically derived Penicillin V (Phenoxymethylpenicillin)

Penicillin G (Benzylpenicillin)

Amoxicillin

Ampicillin

Azlocillin

Carbenicillin

Cloxacillin

Dicloxacillin

Epicillin

Flucloxacillin

Hetacillin

Methicillin

Mezlocillin

Nafcillin

Oxacillin

Piperacillin

Sulbenicillin

Temocillin

Ticarcillin

Metampicillin

Penamecillin

Pivmecillinam

Pivampicillin

Pheneticillin

Amdinocillin (Mecillinam)

Carindacillin

Carfecillin

Cyclacillin

Talampicillin

Sultamicillin

Azidocillin

Propicillin

Bacampicillin

Aspoxicillin

Clometocillin

Meticillin

Cell wall biosynthesis
β-lactams (monobactams) Bacterial natural products or (semi)synthetically derived Aztreonam

Nocardicin A

Carumonam

Gloximonam

Oximonam

Pirazmonam

Tigemonam

Cell wall biosynthesis
β-lactamase inhibitors (Semi)synthetic Avibactam

Clavulanic acid

Durlobactam

Enmetazobactam

Nacubactam

Relebactam

Sulbactam

Tazobactam

Zidebactam

Vaborbactam

β-lactamase enzymes
Diaminopyrimidines / trimethoprim derivatives Synthetic Trimethoprim

Iclaprim

Brodimoprim

Epiroprim

Tetroxoprim

Folate metabolism
Fusidanes Fungi-derived natural products Fusidic acid

Helvolic acid

Cephalosporin P1

Ribosome
Glycopeptides Actinomycete natural products Vancomycin

Teicoplanin

Dalbavancin

Telavancin

Oritavancin

Cell wall biosynthesis
Lincosamides Actinomycete natural products Lincomycin

Clindamycin

Pirlimycin*

Ribosome
Lipopeptides Bacterial natural products Daptomycin

Surfactin

Cell membrane
Nitroimidazoles Synthetic Metronidazole

Tinidazole

Pretomanid

Secnidazole

DNA damage
Nitrofurans Synthetic Nitrofurantoin

Furazolidone

Nifurfoline

Nifurquinazol

Nifurtoinol

Nitrovin

Nifuratel

Nifuroxazide

Nifurtimox

Nifurzide

Nitrofurazone

Tinidazole

Furagin

Ribosome
Nucleosides Actinomycete natural products Puromycin
Capuramycin
Ribosome
Oxazolidinones Synthetic Linezolid

Contezolid

Eperezolid

Posizolid

Radezolid

Ranbezolid

Sutezolid

Tedizolid

Initiation of protein synthesis
Phenicols Actinomycete natural products or (semi)synthetically derived Azidamfenicol

Chloramphenicol

Forfenicol*

Tevenel

Thiamphenicol

Ribosome
Phenolics Synthetic Clofoctol

Chloroxylenol

Parachlorophenol

Unclear

Antiseptic

 

Pleuromutilins Fungal natural product or (semi)synthetically derived Pleuromutilin

Retapamulin

Lefamulin

Ribosome
Polyketides – type I (macrolides/ketolides) Actinomycete natural products Erythromycin

Telithromycin

Azithromycin

Clarithromycin

Cethromycin

Modithromycin

Roxithromycin

Spiramycin

Midecamycin

Rokitamycin

Solithromycin

Flurithromycin

Dirithromycin

Oleandomycin

Troleandomycin

Josamycin

Fidaxomicin

Ribosome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RNA polymerase

Polyketides – type II (tetracyclines) Actinomycete natural products Tetracycline

Doxycycline

Tigecycline

Omadacycline

Eravacycline

Chlortetracycline

Demeclocycline

Meclocycline

Methacycline

Minocycline

Oxytetracycline

Metacycline

Rolitetracycline

Penimepicycline

Lymecycline

Clomocycline

Sarecycline

Ribosome